Course of coastal and marine biology and ecology (lm48, cl. lm-6
Oceanic Metagenomics in. Editorial Staff. Board of Directors. Brown, Co-founder Michael B. Smyth Beth Weil. Editorial Board. Weissman Marv Wickens Ken H. Wolfe Phillip D. Zamore Robert Zatorre Huda Y. PLoS Biology www. Publisher Information.
Copyright is retained by the authors. Public Library of Science Berry St. Display Advertising. Patric Donaghy, pdonaghy plos. Manuscript Submission. March Oceanic Metagenomics Collection. About the Cover. The resulting data are explored in three papers in this special collection from the March issue of PLoS Biology see Rusch et al.
Cover credit: Image provided by the J. Craig Venter Institute. Every paper we publish is freely available online for you to read, download, copy, distribute and use—no permissions required. All articles are archived in PubMed Central. E d i t o r i a l Global Ocean Sampling Collection.The aim of the course is to provide the knowledge about geomorphological and hydrodynamic of the marine habitat. To provide the necessary tools for understanding and evaluating effects of abiotic factors on marine biocenosis.
The teaching consists of lectures, exercises and field activities. Attendance at classes and exercises is strongly recommended. Classroom lessons are delivered through multimedia presentations. The exercises are aimed at the practical application of the theoretical knowledge acquired during the lessons. The exercises will take place in the classroom. Seabed morphology: active and passive continental margins, abyssal plains, oceanic ridges.
Wave propagation and marine currents. Marine habitats: Carbonate factory, delta, tidal flat, lagoon, rocky coasts, litoral system. The books indicated are suggested as supporting text and are available and consultable together with other books for further study at the M.
School Library and at the teacher office. Reniers: A guide to modelling coastal morphology. Advances Series on Ocean Enginnering — Vol. Pranzini - La forma delle coste. Enginnering — Vol.
Ricevimento: The students are able to book an appointment by phone, by mail or by aulaweb. The exam consists of a written test of five questions on topics covered during the course.
Details on how to prepare for the exam and the degree of knowledge required will be provided at the beginning of the course. The level of knowledge acquired and the ability to expose will be evaluated. The correct scientific terminology will also be evaluated.
In particular, the student must be able to demonstrate to have acquired the skills in applying the theoretical concepts to the study of coastal system.
Skip to main content. Study with us. Incoming students Courses Units Ph. About UniGe. Meteorological alert status. Teaching materials. Teaching methods The teaching consists of lectures, exercises and field activities. Wave mathematical modelling exercises. Field activities will be carried out along the Ligurian coast. Smoot, D. Choi, M. Bhat: Marine Geomorphology.Increased loadings of nitrogen N from fertilizers, top soil, sewage, and atmospheric deposition are important drivers of eutrophication in coastal waters globally.
Monitoring seawater and macroalgae can reveal long-term changes in N and phosphorus P availability and N:P stoichiometry that are critical to understanding the global crisis of coral reef decline. These data, combined with remote sensing and nutrient monitoring between the Everglades and Looe Key, indicated that the significant DIN enrichment between and at Looe Key coincided with increased Everglades runoff, which drains agricultural and urban areas extending north to Orlando, Florida.
This resulted in increased P limitation of reef primary producers that can cause metabolic stress in stony corals. Outbreaks of stony coral disease, bleaching, and mortality between and followed DIN enrichment, algal blooms, and increased DIN:SRP ratios, suggesting that eutrophication interacted with other factors causing coral reef decline at Looe Key.
Although water temperatures at Looe Key exceeded the Improved management of water quality at the local and regional levels could moderate N inputs and maintain more balanced N:P stoichiometry, thereby reducing the risk of coral bleaching, disease, and mortality under the current level of temperature stress. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Rent this article via DeepDyve. Photo by Brian Lapointe. Agassiz L Florida reefs and coast. In: Annual report to the superintendent of the coast survey forpp — Version 1.
National Oceanographic Data Center.
Online Class: Marine Biology 101
Accessed 13 July Glob Change Biol 17 5 — Analyst — Atkinson MJ Rates of phosphate uptake by coral reef flat communities. Limnol Oceanogr 32 2 — Limnol Oceanogr 28 3 — Baker AC, Glynn PW, Riegl B Climate change and coral reef bleaching: an ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 80 4 — In: Proceedings of the second international coral reef symposium, pp — Remote Sens Environ — Barnes BB, Garcia R, Hu C, Lee Z Multi-band spectral matching inversion algorithm to derive water column properties in optically shallow waters: an optimization of parameterization.
Water Res 26 5 — Nature — Birkeland C The importance of rate of biomass accumulation in early succession stages of benthic communities to the survival of coral recruits. In: Proceedings of the third international coral reef symposium, pp 16— Birkeland C Life and death of coral reefs. Google Scholar. Birkeland C Ratcheting down the coral reefs. Bioscience 54 11 — Estuaries 22 2 — Ecol Indic 9 6 :S56—S Mar Freshw Res 58 4 — Ecol Lett 6 12 — Brzezinski MA The Si:C:N ratio of marine diatoms: interspecific variability and the effect of some environmental variables.Bottlenose dolphin stock structure in the northeast Atlantic remains poorly understood.
However, fine scale photo-id data have shown that populations can comprise multiple overlapping social communities. These social communities form structural elements of bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus populations, reflecting specific ecological and behavioural adaptations to local habitats. We investigated the social structure of bottlenose dolphins in the waters of northwest Ireland and present evidence for distinct inshore and offshore social communities. Individuals of the inshore community had a coastal distribution restricted to waters within 3 km from shore.
These animals exhibited a cohesive, fission-fusion social organisation, with repeated resightings within the research area, within a larger coastal home range. In addition, dorsal fin scarring patterns differed significantly between inshore and offshore communities with individuals of the offshore community having more distinctly marked dorsal fins.
We propose that this characteristic is likely due to interactions with pelagic fisheries. Social segregation and scarring differences found here indicate that the distinct communities are likely to be spatially and behaviourally segregated. We recommend that social communities should be considered as fundamental units for the management and conservation of bottlenose dolphins and their habitat specialisations. Bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabit a wide range of habitats throughout their worldwide distribution [ 1 ].
The ecological plasticity of this highly mobile species facilitates interaction and gene flow over large distances [ 2 — 4 ]. However, bottlenose dolphin populations commonly consist of distinct social communities that display fine-scale behavioural differentiation, resulting from localised adaptations on small spatial scales [ 5 — 8 ] resulting in fine scale genetic structuring [ 910 ].
A community can be defined as a set of individuals that is behaviourally self-contained and within which most individuals interact with most others [ 11 ], and is formed when a subgroup of a population develops group-specific adaptations or behavioural specialisations [ 812 — 14 ], or forms an isolated social unit [ 15 ]. In restricted coastal habitats, bottlenose dolphin communities are generally dominated by small but highly fluid schools, constricted movement patterns and high site-fidelity [ 16 — 18 ].
In contrast, bottlenose dolphins inhabiting open, exposed habitat occur in large groups, with low site-fidelity and extensive movement patterns [ 1920 ]. In the northwest Atlantic and the northeast Pacific, inshore and offshore ecotypes of bottlenose dolphins have been identified based on morphological [ 2122 ], ecological [ 2325 ] and genetic [ 92627 ] differences.
In Ireland, bottlenose dolphins are found in estuarine, coastal, continental shelf and oceanic waters [ 28 — 31 ]. To date, at least three genetically distinct populations have been identified [ 10 ]: a resident population inhabiting the Shannon estuary, a population inhabiting the coastal waters of western Ireland and a population identified genetically from stranding records of unknown origin, possibly representing an oceanic population [ 10 ].
Individuals of the coastal population have been documented making large-scale movements, around Ireland [ 30 ], and between Atlantic coastal waters and the North Sea [ 32 ]. It remains uncertain whether these large scale movements represent individual or population-wide ranging patterns. Despite their use of adjacent habitats, there is currently no evidence of interactions between bottlenose dolphins inhabiting the Shannon estuary and those using other Irish areas and offshore waters [ 30 ] and these communities appear to represent different breeding populations.
Here, we investigate the community structure of bottlenose dolphins around northwest Ireland in coastal and offshore habitats. Using social network analysis, encounter locations and fin scarring patterns, we test whether bottlenose dolphins using coastal and continental shelf waters belong to a single or multiple communities.
Vessel-based surveys were conducted using a variety of small boats in offshore and inshore areas off northwest Ireland in order to collect photographic identification data of encountered bottlenose dolphins for individual identification Fig.
The black lines indicate survey effort in the two research areas off northwest Ireland, Mayo and Connemara. Sighting locations of bottlenose dolphin groups in inshore waters are indicated by red circles, encounters in offshore waters are indicated by green circles. For each encounter, the geographical location was recorded at first sighting of the group. A group was defined as all dolphins within a m radius of each other, showing coordinated movement patterns and behaviour during the encounter [ 33 ].
Dedicated effort was made to photograph all individuals in the group using digital DSLR cameras with telephoto lenses. We used standard photo-identification techniques to identify individual dolphins [ 3435 ]. Photograph quality was classified based on focus, angle, light and distance to the subject [ 36 ]. Each individual was assigned one of three marking grades based on the severity of scarring of the dorsal fin: permanently, temporarily or superficially marked mark severity; Fig. Superficially marked animals had only superficial rakes and lesions on the dorsal fin.
Photographs from each encounter were matched against a catalogue consisting of the best left and right photos of dolphins identified during previous encounters, each assigned a unique identification number. If photos of an individual did not match with animals in the catalogue, a new entry was added to the catalogue and a new unique identification number assigned to the individual. Examples of the mark severity grades of dorsal fin scarification as applied in this study.When you look at a globe, you can see that nearly three quarters of the Earth's surface is covered with water.
Scientists believe life on Earth got its start in the ocean, and gradually adapted to life on land. Some land-based organisms eventually returned to the water, like dolphins and whales. Tiny ocean plants, called phytoplankton, produce most of the oxygen in the air we breathe. When producing oxygen, these plants soak up carbon dioxide, removing this gas from the air.
The ocean is always in motion: currents move water around the globe. Water evaporates and rises into the atmosphere where it will eventually fall as rain and snow. Cold water sinks in the ocean, warm water rises, and this constant movement distributes heat and nutrients around the globe. In this course, you will learn about life in the ocean depths, at the Polar extremes, in coral reefs, estuaries, and in the open sea.
You will learn about plants large and small, marine birds, reptiles, invertebrates and fish. You will learn how all these organisms connect with each other in the marine biome, and what threats are facing these ecosystems.
Not all organisms can live in a high salinity environment. People, for example, can't survive in saltwater. Since you have no special adaptations to remove salt, if you drink too much seawater, your kidneys will try to flush the excess salt out as quickly as possible through urine, and you would lose more water than you originally drank, leaving you dehydrated.
If you didn't correct the situation by replacing fluids with fresh non salty water, your organs would eventually shut down and you would die. Living in the ocean requires special adaptations, like a tolerance for salt or a way to remove the excess effectively, the ability to move through the water, find food, hide from predators, and locate a mate. Once these distant relatives weren't able to reproduce with one another, they became entirely different species. Scientists study all the different organisms existing today and analyze the traits that they have in common to group them into families.
Understanding the relationships between species has helped scientists derive useful medicines from natural sources, like a substance in horseshoe crabs that is now used in leukemia treatments. Join: Marine Biology Taking multiple courses?
Save with our platinum program.Day in the Life of a Marine Biologist
Students have taken this course. Course Description. Marine biology is the science of saltwater and everything that lives, moves, and filters through it. The word "marine" in this sense refers specifically to saltwater that you find in oceans, not freshwater, which is found in lakes. On land, we tend to think that ecosystems develop in certain geographical areas, but in the ocean, distance doesn't matter as much as depth. The ocean environment changes as you move deeper into the water. It becomes colder and darker.
The pressure is higher and there is less oxygen dissolved in the water. The living conditions are so different at different depths that plants, bacteria and animals can usually only live in certain zones. The theory of evolution argues that organisms that are best adapted to their environment have the best chance of surviving long enough to reproduce.
When organisms don't have to work as hard to get food or fight predators, they have more energy for reproduction, which means they can have more offspring. Lesson 1: Introduction. The area where old crust is sinking under another slab of crust is called a subduction zone.
Subduction zones create such deep trenches that they are all below sea level.Klemm1, Quentin J. Stober2, and James M. The mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
The Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Cincinnati EMSL-Cincinnati conducts research to: o Develop and evaluate methods to identify and measure the concentration of chemical pollutants in drinking waters, surface waters, groundwaters, wastewaters, sediments, sludges, and solid wastes. This manual describes guidelines and standardized procedures for the use of fish in evaluating the biological integrity of surface waters. It was developed to provide biomonitoring programs with fisheries methods for measuring the status and trends of environmental pollution on freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats in field and laboratory studies.
These fish studies are carried out to assess biological criteria for the recognized beneficial uses of water, to monitor surface water quality, and to evaluate the health of the aquatic environment. Thomas A. The program addresses methods for sample collection; sample preparation; organism identification and enumeration; the measurement of biomass and metabolic rates; the bioaccumulation and pathology of toxic substances; bioassay; biomarkers; the computerization, analysis, and interpretation of biological data; and ecological assessments.
This manual contains field and laboratory fish methods for evaluating the health and biological integrity of fresh, estuarine, and marine waters. Included are sections on quality assurance and quality control procedures; safety and health recommendations; fish collection techniques; specimen processing techniques; identification and taxonomic references; fish age, growth, and condition determinations; data recording; length-frequency; length-age conversion; annulus formulation; relative weight index; flesh tainting; fish kill investigation; bioassessment protocols for use in streams and rivers; family-level ichthyoplankton index; fish health and condition assessment; guidelines for fish sampling and tissue preparation for bioaccumulative contaminants; and an extensive bibliography for fisheries.
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Safety and Health T 42 Trawls. Sample Analysis Techniques 83 Introduction. Example of sample identification tag 20 2.
General fish field data sheets 35 2, Site description sheet for evaluating the topogeographical features and physical characteristics of fish sampling location. Otter trawl 46 6. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net 48 7. Boom shocker 50 8. Gill net 63 9. Trammel net 65 Hoop net. Fyke net 66 Slat trap Example of fish sample label information for preserved specimen container. Fish measurements using a fish measuring board and scale sampling areas.
Example of recording field data information of scale samples for age and growth studies. Minimum water sampling point on stream feet or less wide involving an isolated discharge Minimum water sampling points on a stream running through an industrial or municipal complex Flowchart of biosurvey approach for fish bioassessment II.
Range of sensitivities of biosurvey for fish bioassessment II metrics in assessing biological condition 3. Fish assemblage questionnaire for use with fish bioassessment I. Impairment assessment sheet for use with fish bioassessment II.
Fish field collection data sheet for use with fish bioassessment II 6. Total number of fish species versus watershed area for Ohio regional reference sites Data summary sheet for fish bioassessment II Header information used for documentation and identification for sampling stations. Example of Ohio EPA quantitative habitat evaluation index field sheet My research combines original data collected in the field with biodiversity informatics 'big data' and novel quantitative modeling techniques to understand critical ecological questions about organisms.
I am most interested in how large-scale anthropogenic drivers of change e. Montgomery, G. A, Dunn, R. How to find out", Biological Conservation, Tingley, M. Stillman, A. Siegel, R. Russo, N. Grames, E. Steen, V. Si, X. Inman-Narahari, F. Chisholm, R. Condit, K. Rahman, P, J. Baker, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Y. Chen, G. Chuyong, H. Dattaraja, S. Davies, C. Ewango, C. Gunatilleke, I. Gunatilleke, S. Hubbell, D. Kenfack, S. Kiratiprayoon, Y. Lin, J. Makana, N.
Pongpattananurak, S. Pulla, R. Punchi-Manage, R. Sukumar, S.
Pondicherry University Syllabus 2020, Section & Subject Wise Syllabus- Check Here
Su, I. Sun, H. Suresh, S. Tan, D.